Treasurypedia: Your Comprehensive Glossary of Treasury Terms

What is a treasury community and forum without a special glossary. Welcome to Treasurypedia, your ultimate resource for understanding the language of treasury management and finance. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or just beginning your journey in the world of treasury, our glossary is designed to provide clear, concise definitions of key terms and concepts.

Treasurypedia covers a wide range of topics, from fundamental financial instruments and market operations to advanced risk management strategies and regulatory frameworks. Explore our extensive list of entries to deepen your knowledge and stay up-to-date with the latest trends in the treasury field.

We’re committed to making complex treasury concepts accessible to everyone. Browse through our glossary to enhance your expertise and ensure you have the essential vocabulary to navigate the world of finance with confidence.

Account Receivable (AR)
The amount of money owed to a company by its customers for goods and services sold on credit.
Accounts Payable
The amount of money a company owes to its suppliers and vendors for goods and services purchased on credit.
Accrual Accounting
An accounting method that records revenues and expenses when they are incurred, regardless of when cash is exchanged. Accrual accounting provides a more accurate picture of a company’s financial performance than cash accounting
The process of gradually paying off a debt, such as a loan or mortgage, through regular payments of principal and interest over time. Amortization schedules are used to track the repayment of debt and allocate payments between principal and interest
Annual Percentage Rate (APR)
The annual rate charged for borrowing or earned through an investment, expressed as a percentage of the principal. APR includes interest and any additional fees or charges associated with the loan or investment.
The practice of exploiting price differences in different markets to make a profit. In treasury, this could involve buying a financial instrument at a lower price in one market and selling it at a higher price in another
Asset Allocation
The process of dividing an investment portfolio among different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, and cash equivalents, to achieve a desired risk-return profile. Asset allocation is a key component of portfolio management and risk management
Asset Management
The process of managing an organization’s investments to maximize returns and minimize risks. This includes managing stocks, bonds, real estate, and other assets
Audit Trail
A chronological record of financial transactions that enables the tracing of transactions from their origin to their final disposition. This is crucial for transparency and accountability in financial management
Financial assistance provided to a failing company or financial institution to prevent its collapse and stabilize the economy. Bailouts may involve loans, equity investments, or other forms of financial support.
Balance Sheet
A financial statement that shows a company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity at a specific point in time. It provides a snapshot of a company’s financial position.
Bank Guarantee
A promise by a bank to pay a specified amount of money to a beneficiary if the customer fails to fulfill its obligations. Bank guarantees are often used in international trade to ensure payment or performance.
Basis Point (BP)
A unit of measure used in finance to describe changes in interest rates or bond yields. One basis point is equal to 0.01%. For example, if an interest rate increases by 25 basis points, it means it has increased by 0.25%
Bearer Bond
A bond that is not registered in the name of a specific owner and is payable to whoever holds it. Bearer bonds are negotiable instruments and are typically unsecured.
Bearer Instrument
A financial instrument, such as a bond or check, that is payable to whoever holds it, rather than to a specific person or entity. Bearer instruments are transferable by delivery and do not require endorsement.
Book Value
The value of an asset or liability as reported on a company’s balance sheet. It is calculated as the original cost of the asset minus any accumulated depreciation or amortization.
Capital Adequacy Ratio
A measure of a bank’s capital in relation to its risk-weighted assets, used to assess its financial stability and solvency. It is calculated by dividing a bank’s capital by its risk-weighted assets.
Capital Budgeting
The process of evaluating and selecting long-term investment projects. Capital budgeting involves analyzing the costs and benefits of potential investments to determine which ones are most likely to generate a positive return
Capital Expenditure (Capex)
Money spent by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets, such as property, plants, and equipment. CapEx is typically made with the expectation of generating future income or cost savings.
Capital Market
A financial market where long-term debt and equity securities are bought and sold, including stocks, bonds, and derivatives. Capital markets provide a means for companies and governments to raise funds for investment and expansion
Cash Equivalents
Short-term, highly liquid investments that are easily convertible to cash and have a low risk of price fluctuations. Examples include Treasury bills, money market funds, and commercial paper.
Cash Flow
The movement of money into and out of a business. Cash flow is a critical measure of a company’s financial health and its ability to meet its short-term obligations.
Assets pledged as security for a loan or other financial obligation. Collateral provides lenders with a form of protection in case the borrower defaults on the loan.
Commercial Paper
Short-term debt securities issued by corporations to raise funds for day-to-day operations. Commercial paper typically has a maturity of less than 270 days and is sold at a discount to face value.
Corporate Bond
A debt security issued by a corporation to raise funds for business operations, expansion, or acquisitions. Corporate bonds typically pay a fixed or variable rate of interest and have maturities ranging from one to 30 years
Cost of Capital
The weighted average cost of a company’s debt and equity financing, used to evaluate the feasibility of investment projects and make capital allocation decisions. The cost of capital represents the minimum return required by investors to compensate for the risk of investing in the company
Counterparty Risk
The risk that a party to a financial transaction will default on its obligations. Counterparty risk is a significant concern in derivatives markets and other over-the-counter transactions.
Credit Default Swap
A financial derivative that allows investors to hedge against the risk of default on a debt instrument or loan. In a CDS contract, the buyer pays a premium to the seller in exchange for protection against default
Credit Rating
An assessment of the creditworthiness of a borrower or issuer of debt securities, based on its ability to repay its debts. Credit ratings are assigned by credit rating agencies such as Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch
Credit Spread
The difference in yield between two fixed-income securities with similar maturities but different credit ratings. Credit spreads reflect the relative creditworthiness of the issuers and the perceived risk of default
Currency Risk
The risk of loss due to fluctuations in exchange rates. Currency risk is a concern for companies that operate internationally or have foreign currency-denominated assets or liabilities.
A type of bond that is not secured by collateral and is backed only by the issuer’s creditworthiness. Debentures are typically unsecured, long-term debt securities with fixed interest rates.
Debt Management
The process of managing a company’s debt to ensure it remains within acceptable levels. Debt management involves monitoring interest rates, refinancing debt when necessary, and optimizing the company’s capital structure.
Debt to equity ratio
A financial ratio that measures the proportion of a company’s financing that comes from debt versus equity. A high debt-to-equity ratio indicates that a company relies heavily on debt financing, which can increase financial risk
The failure of a borrower to fulfill its obligations under a loan agreement or bond issue. Defaults can result in financial losses for lenders and investors and may trigger legal actions to recover the outstanding debt.
Deficit Spending
Government spending that exceeds tax revenues, resulting in a budget deficit. Deficit spending is often used to stimulate economic growth during recessions but can lead to higher levels of government debt if not properly managed.
The allocation of the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life for accounting and tax purposes. Depreciation reduces the book value of the asset on the balance sheet and reflects its gradual wear and tear or obsolescence
Financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset. Derivatives include options, futures, forwards, and swaps, and are used for hedging, speculation, and arbitrage.
Discount Rate
The interest rate at which the Federal Reserve lends money to commercial banks. The discount rate is one of the tools used by central banks to control monetary policy and influence economic activity.
Diversifiable risk
Risk that can be eliminated through diversification by investing in a variety of assets with low or negative correlations. Diversifiable risk, also known as unsystematic risk, includes company-specific factors and industry trends.
The practice of spreading investments across different assets or asset classes to reduce risk. Diversification can help investors mitigate the impact of market volatility and improve the overall risk-return profile of their portfolios.
A payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits. Dividends are typically paid in cash or additional shares of stock and are a key source of income for investors
Dividend Yield
The annual dividend per share divided by the stock’s price per share, expressed as a percentage. Dividend yield is used by investors to compare the dividend income generated by different stocks.
A measure of the sensitivity of the price of a bond or bond portfolio to changes in interest rates. Duration takes into account both the timing and size of a bond’s cash flows and is used by investors to manage interest rate risk.
Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
A theory that asserts that financial markets are efficient and incorporate all available information into asset prices. According to the EMH, it is impossible to consistently outperform the market through active management or analysis of past price movements
Ownership interest in a company, represented by shares of stock. Equity represents a claim on the company’s assets and earnings and entitles shareholders to voting rights and dividends.
Equity Risk
The risk of loss due to fluctuations in the price of stocks or equity securities. Equity risk is influenced by factors such as changes in interest rates, economic conditions, and company-specific events.
Federal Reserve (FED)
The central bank of the United States, responsible for conducting monetary policy and regulating the banking system. The Federal Reserve sets interest rates, controls the money supply, and oversees the stability of the financial system.
Financial Instrument
A tradable asset or contract that represents a financial value, such as stocks, bonds, derivatives, and currencies. Financial instruments are used for investment, hedging, speculation, and risk management
Fiscal Policy
Government policy concerning taxation and spending, aimed at achieving economic objectives such as price stability and full employment. Fiscal policy is used to influence aggregate demand and manage the overall level of economic activity
Fixed Income
Investments that provide a fixed stream of income, such as bonds and preferred stocks. Fixed-income securities are often considered safer investments than equities but may offer lower returns.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Investment in a foreign country that involves the acquisition of a significant ownership stake in a company. FDI can take the form of greenfield investments, mergers and acquisitions, or joint ventures.
Foreign Exchange
The market where currencies are traded. The foreign exchange market is the largest financial market in the world and operates 24 hours a day, five days a week.
Forward Contract
A financial agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specified price on a future date. Forward contracts are used to hedge against future price fluctuations or to speculate on the direction of prices.
Forward Rate Agreement (FRA)
A financial contract that allows parties to lock in an interest rate for a future period. FRAs are used to hedge against fluctuations in interest rates or to speculate on future interest rate movements
Futures Contract
A standardized financial contract to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price on a specified future date. Futures contracts are traded on organized exchanges and are used by investors to hedge against price risk or to speculate on price movements.
The excess of the purchase price paid for a company over the fair market value of its identifiable assets and liabilities. Goodwill represents intangible assets such as brand reputation, customer relationships, and intellectual property
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total value of all goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a given period. GDP is a key indicator of a country’s economic performance and is used to measure economic growth and development.
Hedge Fund
An investment fund that pools capital from accredited investors and institutional investors to invest in a variety of assets using different strategies. Hedge funds often use leverage and derivatives to amplify returns and manage risk.
A strategy used to reduce or eliminate the risk of adverse price movements in an asset. Hedging involves taking offsetting positions in related assets to protect against losses from unfavorable price changes.
High Yield Bond
A bond that pays a higher interest rate than investment-grade bonds to compensate investors for the higher risk of default. High-yield bonds, also known as junk bonds, are issued by companies with lower credit ratings or higher levels of debt
A sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. Inflation erodes the purchasing power of money and can have significant economic and social consequences.
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
The first sale of stock by a private company to the public, marking its transition to a publicly traded company. IPOs raise capital for companies and provide liquidity for existing shareholders.
Institutional Investor
An organization or entity that invests large sums of money on behalf of its clients or members, such as pension funds, mutual funds, insurance companies, and hedge funds. Institutional investors typically have access to greater resources and expertise than individual investors
The cost of borrowing money, usually expressed as a percentage of the principal amount borrowed. Interest is paid by borrowers to lenders as compensation for the use of their funds.
Interest rate risk
The risk of loss due to changes in interest rates. Interest rate risk affects the value of fixed-income securities such as bonds and is a key consideration for bond investors.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
A measure of the profitability of an investment, representing the discount rate that makes the net present value of the investment’s cash flows equal to zero. IRR is used to evaluate the potential return of an investment and compare it to alternative investments.
Investment Horizon
The length of time an investor plans to hold an investment before selling it. Investment horizon is an important consideration for asset allocation, risk management, and investment strategy
Investment grade
A credit rating indicating that a bond or other debt security is considered to have a relatively low risk of default. Investment-grade bonds are typically issued by stable and creditworthy borrowers and have lower yields than non-investment-grade bonds.
The use of borrowed funds to increase the potential return on investment. Leverage magnifies both gains and losses and can significantly increase the risk of an investment.
Liquidity Management
The process of managing a company’s cash and other assets to ensure it has enough liquidity to meet its obligations. Liquidity management involves optimizing the timing and size of cash inflows and outflows to maintain adequate liquidity levels.
Liquidity Risk
The risk that an asset cannot be sold or converted into cash quickly and at a fair price without significantly affecting its market value. Liquidity risk is influenced by factors such as trading volume, market depth, and investor sentiment
Margin call
A demand by a broker or lender for additional funds to cover losses incurred on a margin account. Margin calls are triggered when the value of securities held as collateral for a loan falls below a certain threshold.
A valuation method that measures the fair market value of an asset or liability based on its current market price. Mark-to-market accounting is used for financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, and derivatives to reflect changes in value over time
Market Risk
The risk of loss due to changes in market conditions, such as interest rates or asset prices. Market risk affects all investments and cannot be eliminated entirely but can be managed through diversification and hedging.
Maturity Date
The date on which a debt instrument, such as a bond or loan, becomes due and payable. The maturity date is the final repayment date for the principal amount borrowed, along with any accrued interest.
Monetary Policy
Government policy concerning the control of the money supply and interest rates, aimed at achieving economic objectives such as price stability and full employment. Monetary policy is typically implemented by a central bank.
Money Market
The market for short-term debt securities, such as Treasury bills and commercial paper. The money market provides liquidity to financial institutions and corporations and serves as a venue for short-term borrowing and lending.
Municipality Bond
A debt security issued by a state or local government to finance public projects, such as schools, roads, and utilities. Municipal bonds are typically exempt from federal income tax and may be exempt from state and local taxes for investors who reside in the issuing jurisdiction.
Net Present Value (NPV)
The difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows over a specified period of time. NPV is used to evaluate the profitability of an investment or project and is calculated by discounting future cash flows to their present value.
Nett Asset Value (NAV)
The value of a mutual fund’s assets minus its liabilities, divided by the number of outstanding shares. NAV represents the per-share value of the mutual fund and is calculated daily based on the closing prices of its underlying assets
Operating Cash Flow
The cash generated or used by a company’s core business operations, excluding financing and investing activities. Operating cash flow is a key measure of a company’s liquidity and ability to generate cash from its day-to-day operations
A financial derivative that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a specified price on or before a specified date. Options are used for hedging, speculation, and generating income through option premiums.
Over the Counter (OTC) market
A decentralized market where securities are traded directly between parties, rather than through a centralized exchange. The OTC market includes a wide range of financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, derivatives, and foreign currencies
Pension Fund
A pool of assets set aside to provide retirement income to employees of a company or organization. Pension funds are managed by professional fund managers and invest in a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, and other assets.
Portfolio Management
The process of selecting and managing a group of investments to achieve a specific investment objective. Portfolio management involves asset allocation, security selection, and risk management to optimize returns while minimizing risk.
Price to Earnings ratio (P/E ratio)
A valuation ratio that compares a company’s stock price to its earnings per share (EPS). The P/E ratio is used by investors to assess the relative value of a stock and determine whether it is overvalued or undervalued.
Prime Rate
The interest rate that banks charge their most creditworthy customers for loans. The prime rate serves as a benchmark for other interest rates, such as mortgage rates and corporate lending rates.
Private Equity
Ownership or interest in a company that is not publicly traded on a stock exchange. Private equity investments are typically made by private equity firms or wealthy individuals and may involve taking a significant ownership stake in a company.
Public Debt
The total amount of money owed by a government through the issuance of bonds and other securities. Public debt is used to finance government spending and is typically repaid with future tax revenues.
Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
A company that owns, operates, or finances income-producing real estate, such as office buildings, apartment complexes, and shopping centers. REITs offer investors the opportunity to invest in real estate without directly owning property.
Repo Market
A market where securities are bought and sold with an agreement to repurchase them at a later date, usually within a short period of time. The repo market provides short-term funding for financial institutions and serves as a venue for borrowing and lending securities.
Revenue Bond
A municipal bond issued to finance a specific revenue-generating project, such as a toll road or airport. Revenue bonds are backed by the revenue generated by the project and do not require the issuer to raise taxes or use general funds for repayment.
Risk Management
The process of identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks to a company’s financial health. Risk management involves implementing strategies to reduce the likelihood and impact of adverse events, such as market downturns, natural disasters, and regulatory changes.
Financial instruments that represent ownership or debt, such as stocks and bonds. Securities are bought and sold in financial markets and serve as a means for individuals and institutions to invest and raise capital.
The process of pooling financial assets, such as mortgages or loans, and converting them into tradable securities. Securitization allows financial institutions to transfer credit risk and create new investment opportunities for investors.
Short Selling
The sale of a security that is not owned by the seller, with the expectation that its price will decline, allowing the seller to buy it back at a lower price. Short selling is used by investors to profit from falling prices and can be risky if the price of the security rises instead.
The ability of a company to meet its long-term financial obligations. Solvency is determined by comparing a company’s assets to its liabilities and is a key measure of financial stability and viability.
Spot Market
A financial market where assets are bought and sold for immediate delivery and payment, as opposed to futures or forward markets where delivery and payment are made at a future date. Spot markets provide liquidity and price transparency for a wide range of assets.
Standard Deviation
A statistical measure of the dispersion or variability of a set of values, such as investment returns or asset prices, around their mean or average. Standard deviation is used to assess risk and volatility and is a key input in portfolio risk management
Stress testing
A risk management technique that evaluates the potential impact of adverse events or scenarios on a company’s financial condition and performance. Stress testing is used to assess resilience, identify vulnerabilities, and improve risk mitigation strategies
Systemic Risk
Risk that is inherent in the overall market or economy and cannot be diversified away. Systematic risk, also known as market risk or non-diversifiable risk, affects all investments and is influenced by factors such as interest rates, inflation, and economic growth
Time Value of Money (TVM)
A financial principle that states that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, due to the potential for earning interest or investment returns. TVM is used in various financial calculations, such as present value, future value, and annuity calculations.
Treasury Bills
Short-term debt securities issued by governments to raise funds. Treasury bills are considered one of the safest investments because they are backed by the full faith and credit of the government and have a maturity of one year or less.
Treasury Bonds
Long-term debt securities issued by governments to raise funds. Treasury bonds typically have maturities of 10 to 30 years and pay interest semiannually. They are considered low-risk investments and are often used as a benchmark for other interest rates.
Treasury Management
The overall process of managing a company’s cash, investments, and financial risks. Treasury management encompasses cash flow forecasting, liquidity management, risk management, and financial reporting.
Treasury Management System (TMS)
Software used by treasury departments to manage their financial operations. TMS platforms typically include features for cash management, liquidity forecasting, risk management, and compliance reporting.
The process by which an investment bank or financial institution assesses and assumes the risk of issuing securities on behalf of a company or government. Underwriting involves pricing, marketing, and distributing securities to investors.
Working Capital Management
The management of a company’s short-term assets and liabilities to ensure it has enough liquidity to operate effectively. Working capital management involves optimizing the levels of cash, accounts receivable, and inventory to minimize financing costs and maximize profitability.